Search Results

Animation - Understanding Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
This animation explains how healthy lungs function and how non-small cell lung cancer can occur. Non-small cell lung cancer is one of two major types of lung cancer and it is the most common type of lung cancer in the US. This animation will help you understand what causes this type of cancer and what are its common risk factors. While cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor, there are other risk factors and this disease can occur in those who have never smoked. If you have been diagnosed with this type of cancer, this animation will help you know the kinds of questions you should ask when you meet with you doctor, including the goals of treatment and their possible benefits and also possible side effects.
Slide Show - Understanding Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
This slide show explains how healthy lungs function and how non-small cell lung cancer can occur. Non-small cell lung cancer is one of two major types of lung cancer and it is the most common type of lung cancer in the US. This slide show will help you understand what causes this type of cancer and what are its common risk factors. While cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor, there are other risk factors and this disease can occur in those who have never smoked. If you have been diagnosed with this type of cancer, this slide show will help you know the kinds of questions you should ask when you meet with you doctor, including the goals of treatment and their possible benefits and also possible side effects.
Expert Video - What is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for about 80% of lung cancers diagnosed every year. NSCLC has several sub categories. The most common sub category is called “adenocarcinoma” which makes up about half of all patients. Another category is called “squamous cell carcinoma” which makes up about a quarter of all patients. There are also other rarer subtypes such as “large cell carcinoma” and other neuroendocrine type of cancers.
Expert Video - What are the risk factors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?
The most common risk factor for non-small cell lung cancer is cigarette smoking (former and current smokers). Other risk factors include second-hand smoke, and prior exposure to asbestos, radon, and radiation. There are also individuals for whom there is no clear identified risk factor - these can be individuals who are “never smokers” and who have not had exposure to any of the traditional factors that can lead to an increased risk of lung cancer.
Expert Video - What are the symptoms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?
There are no specific symptoms for lung cancer. Lung cancer starts in the chest and can be masked by other diseases that begin in the chest, like pneumonia, or bronchitis. Patients often come to the attention of their doctors because they have pulmonary symptoms such as coughing, or wheezing, or shortness of breath and the doctor might order further tests to look for the presence of lung cancer.
Expert Video - What are my options for treatment and management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?
The treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depend on the stage or extent of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. The earlier the stage of the cancer, the more likely it can be operated on and removed. If the cancer has entered the lymph nodes it can still potentially be operated on, but sometimes requires additional treatments like chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. If the cancer has spread outside the lungs into other organs of the body, it is typically no longer something that is operated on but treated with either chemotherapy, or targeted therapy, or immune therapy.
Animation - Understanding Small Cell Lung Cancer
This animation explains how healthy lungs function and how small cell lung cancer can occur. Small cell lung cancer is one of two major types of lung cancer and it is the 2nd most common type of lung cancer in the US. This animation explores what causes this type of cancer and what are its common risk factors. While cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor, there are other risk factors and this disease can occur in those who have never smoked. If you or a someone you know have been diagnosed with this type of cancer, this animation will help you know the kinds of questions you should ask when you meet with you doctor, including the goals of treatment and their possible benefits as well as the possible side effects.
Slide Show - Understanding Small Cell Lung Cancer
This slide show explains how healthy lungs function and how small cell lung cancer can occur. Small cell lung cancer is one of two major types of lung cancer and it is the 2nd most common type of lung cancer in the US. This slide show explores what causes this type of cancer and what are its common risk factors. While cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor, there are other risk factors and this disease can occur in those who have never smoked. If you or a someone you know have been diagnosed with this type of cancer, this slide show will help you know the kinds of questions you should ask when you meet with you doctor, including the goals of treatment and their possible benefits as well as the possible side effects.
Expert Video - What is small cell lung cancer (SCLC)?
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 15-20% of lung cancers diagnosed every year in the United States. It is rarer than non-small cell lung cancer. The term “small cell” refers to the size and shape of the cancer cells as seen under a microscope. Small cell lung cancer appears as small blue cells, instead of the larger cells associated with more common forms of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer typically starts in the middle part of the chest in a unique set of cells different to non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is treated differently to non-small cell lung cancer.
Expert Video - What are the risk factors for small cell lung cancer (SCLC)?
Being a smoker or smoking in the past may raise a person’s risk of developing small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is almost exclusive to patients who are current or former smokers. It's very rare for someone who has never smoked to have small cell lung cancer, unlike non-small cell lung cancer which can occur in 15-20% of never smokers.
Expert Video - What are the symptoms of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)?
Small cell lung cancer typically starts in the middle part of the chest and is often associated with breathing difficulties. Sometimes coughing occurs, or coughing up blood. Sometimes the tumor presses on one of the large veins that drain blood from the arms or head, resulting in swelling in the arms or sometimes swelling around the neck or the head.
Expert Video - What are my options for treatment and management of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)?
Treatment options for small cell lung cancer depend on the stage or extent of the cancer, and may include a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is rarely used for patients with small cell lung cancer. If the small cell lung cancer occurs only in the chest, it’s called “limited stage” and treated with chemotherapy and radiation at the same time. If the cancer has spread outside the chest to other parts of the body it’s called “extensive stage”, and treated with chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, additional radiation therapy to the head may be given to lessen the risk that the cancer will spread to the brain.
Patient Video - What has your experience been with lung cancer?
Carol is a tribal elder from the Mille Lacs Band of the Ojibwe First Nation and a lung cancer survivor. Carol describes her lung cancer diagnosis and treatment journey, which involved a lung resection (surgery in which a section of her lower left lobe was removed) followed by chemotherapy. Carol’s lung cancer is currently in remission.
Patient Video - What do people in your Native American community think about lung cancer clinical trials?
Lung cancer survivor, Carol, talks about the level of awareness of lung cancer and lung cancer clinical trials in her Native American community. Living in a rural area, she considers that her community has not had the opportunity or exposure to learn about lung cancer clinical trial availability, eligibility criteria, and reasons to join a clinical trial.
Patient Video - As a Native American, would you consider taking part in a lung cancer clinical trial? What advice do you have for others?
Lung cancer survivor and tribal elder, Carol, describes her experiences with clinical trials. She strongly supports research and education and would consider taking part in a lung cancer clinical trial. Carol mentions her concerns about clinical trials from the past and how she had a fear of ingesting medications as part of a research study. However, based on her current situation where she is in remission from lung cancer, she would be willing to try new medications that have the potential to help her live longer and stay healthy.
Patient Video - What are some of the barriers that limit clinical trial participation among Native Americans?
Carol is a tribal elder from the Mille Lacs Band of the Ojibwe Nation and a lung cancer survivor. She discusses some of the barriers that impact lung cancer clinical trial participation among Native American communities, including long travel times, transportation difficulties, and health services access issues. Other challenges she discusses are the many doctors that need to be seen before getting to a lung cancer specialist, and mistrust of clinical trials due to negative historical and present-day experiences. Carol recommends Native American patients consult with experts and elders in their communities and decide for themselves how they want to approach the matters of traditional medicine and western medicine, to decide if they should be kept separate or can "walk hand-in-hand".
Patient Video - How did you find out you had KRAS-positive lung cancer?
Chris shares his lung cancer diagnosis journey and talks about the significance of the comprehensive biomarker testing that revealed he has the KRAS G12C lung cancer mutation.
Patient Video - What was the comprehensive biomarker testing experience like?
Chris explains what his experience was like having comprehensive biomarker testing for his lung cancer, how long he had to wait for results, and what the overall process involved. After having a liquid biopsy and pleuroscopy, his medical team was able to extract additional tissue samples that confirmed he had the KRAS G12C lung cancer mutation.
Patient Video - What has your treatment experience been for your KRAS-positive lung cancer?
Chris discusses his treatment journey and experiences for his KRAS-positive lung cancer. Having the KRAS G12C lung cancer mutation has qualified him to have the targeted therapy adagrasib for his specific mutation. The treatments have slowed down the growth of Chris' lung cancer, allowing him to have a better quality of life with minimal side effects.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for newly diagnosed lung cancer patients about biomarker testing?
Chris shares advice for newly diagnosed lung cancer patients about comprehensive biomarker testing. He firmly believes that biomarker testing is one of the most critical aspects of properly diagnosing lung cancer for patients today and should be done early and often because cancer can mutate and evolve over time. He urges anyone diagnosed with lung cancer to request comprehensive biomarker testing from their doctor.
Patient Video - How did you find out you had EGFR-positive lung cancer?
Christi shares her lung cancer diagnosis journey and the initial treatments she had. Later when it was discovered that her lung cancer had progressed to stage 4, she had comprehensive biomarker testing which revealed she has the EGFR exon 19 deletion lung cancer mutation.
Patient Video - What was the comprehensive biomarker testing experience like?
Christi describes what her experience was like having comprehensive biomarker testing for her lung cancer, how the tissue sample biopsy was performed, and what happened during and after the procedure.
Patient Video - What has your treatment experience been for your EGFR-positive lung cancer?
Christi discusses her treatment journey and experiences for her EGFR-positive lung cancer. Having the EGFR exon 19 deletion lung cancer mutation qualified her to have the targeted therapy amivantamab. She talks about the treatment successes and challenges she has experienced from taking repeated biomarker testing, which revealed she had additional mutations (FGFR1 amplification, FGF3 mutation, NSD3 amplification, and others).
Patient Video - What has been the biggest challenge for you with your lung cancer?
Curt found the biggest challenge with his lung cancer has been all the treatments he went through. He had chemotherapy, then a pneumonectomy where they removed his right lung, and then radiation therapy. He was fortunate because he tolerated most of the treatments quite well, however taking away his right lung has been a challenge. Ultimately the biggest challenge was the fear he encountered with his Stage IIB lung cancer. Luckily the tumor was contained in one area of the lung and his treatments worked. Adapting to one lung after 6-7 years has been difficult, however he feels very fortunate.
Patient Video - What was the one thing you would have liked your doctor to explain better about your lung cancer?
Curt felt his doctors and care givers did a wonderful job, however they did not explain much to him about what kind of cell type of lung cancer he had. It would have given him a more comprehensive overview of what kind of cancer cells he had, and that would have helped him better understand what kind of treatments were most likely to work.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for other patients on their journey with lung cancer?
Curt wants other lung cancer patients to be as positive as possible, even though it may not be easy. He says it is very important to talk to friends and family about what you are going through and be honest with those around you. Don’t remove yourself. Pulling back from friends and family is not the way to go.
Patient Video - How did your friends and family react to your diagnosis of lung cancer?
Curt’s friends and family were very shocked at first, in some ways he feels they were more afraid than he was. Although the fear is a big factor for anyone with lung cancer. Part of what he would recommend to others is to talk about it enough so that your friends and family can feel more comfortable and don’t suffer in silence.
Patient Video - What do you feel has been your unique challenge or situation when it comes to lung cancer?
Curt’s unique challenge was his recovery from the surgery (removal of his right lung). Over time adapting to the loss of one lung was difficult. The right lung can account for 55% of pulmonary capacity. He went to physical therapy and spent a lot of time in recovery. When he climbs a hill or climbs some steps at a ball game, it’s a challenge. However, he takes it slower than he used to and tries to keep going. It’s still frustrating but he remains positive.
Patient Video - What has been the biggest challenge for you with your lung cancer?
Julie’s biggest challenge with her stage 4 lung cancer has been the mental challenge of the fear of the unknown and what’s coming next. In particular, she is afraid about what’s going to happen with her children and how they will cope (she has two young children). Julie tries to stay in the present as much as possible and tries to focus on how she is currently feeling, instead of looking at someday when things could turn for the worse.
Patient Video - What was the one thing you would have liked your doctor to explain better about your lung cancer?
Julie felt that the biopsy process could have been better explained to her. She did not realize that the biopsy would involve some genetic testing to see what type of genetic modifications might be in the cancer cells, which would relate to the treatment options available to her.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for other patients on their journey with lung cancer?
Julie wants other lung cancer patients to educate themselves and also connect with other lung cancer patients, to learn from them or be inspired by them. She says it’s important for lung cancer patients to advocate for themselves in their own personal journey.
Patient Video - How did your friends and family react to your diagnosis of lung cancer?
Julie’s friends and family were all shocked when they found out she had lung cancer, just as she was. She had not known that lung cancer was even a risk or possibility for her. She thought lung cancer was just for smokers. Her brothers were smokers and they were shocked too, because Julie never smoked.
Patient Video - What do you feel has been your unique challenge or situation when it comes to lung cancer?
Julie says being a parent of two boys (aged 9 and 11) with her stage 4 lung cancer has been extremely difficult. Knowing how to navigate with them, and balancing hope with reality has been very challenging. Currently Julie is disease free, but it’s been hard for all of them. She has had her boys in counseling to make sure they have the skills to cope with this challenge. She hopes that they learn compassion and how to help others.
Patient Video - Why did you decide to join a lung cancer clinical trial?
Julie introduces herself as a Stage 4 lung cancer patient who has been living with lung cancer for six years. Due to concerns that her current line of treatment might stop working, Julie decided to enroll in a clinical trial. She recalls proactively researching several clinical trial options and that she became eligible to participate in one of them. She explains that www.ClinicalTrials.gov and contacting other lung cancer patients who have participated in past studies are great resources for finding a clinical trial. By finding clinical trials that matched her specific lung cancer mutation, Julie shared her interest to participate in a trial with her oncologist to get an opinion about whether the specific clinical trial could be an option for her.
Patient Video - What was your overall experience in the lung cancer clinical trial?
Julie shares that she benefited overall from her clinical trial experience. She was regularly cared for by a very supportive team of nurses and clinical trial organizers, who closely monitored how her body was responding to the medications while tracking for any side effects. Julie describes how there were drawbacks in that she was very nervous during her first infusion of treatment, coupled with a very intense first week of tests, treatments, and periods of monitoring. Another drawback for her was the frequency of scans during follow-up sessions. Despite this, Julie tells the great news that her body had a complete response to the trial medication after participating in the clinical trial for almost a year. Although Julie was eventually recommended to leave the clinical trial due to other complications, her clinical trial experience provided her with a year of very good health, and she experienced a positive response to treatment. The drug that was being tested has since been approved by the FDA. Julie feels she was able to impactfully and positively contribute to the clinical study – the findings and results of which will be able to benefit other lung cancer patients in years to come.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for other people about participating in clinical trials for lung cancer?
Julie wants other patients with lung cancer to know that clinical trials have the potential to offer another option other than the medications which are already FDA-approved. Lung cancer clinical trial participation has so much potential which could impact a person’s life in a very significant way, as well as help others in the future. She understands that there may be fear and anxiety about enrolling in a clinical trial and recommends talking about these concerns with an oncologist to help participants to know that they will receive exceptional care and oversight. Julie shares that she is doing very well on her current line of treatment, and as a backup, is already researching into other clinical trial options. Julie encourages other patients with lung cancer to proactively look ahead and not to wait for a later stage of disease to occur.
Patient Video - How did you use ClinicalTrials.gov to find a lung cancer clinical trial?
Julie describes how she used www.ClinicalTrials.gov as an important resource for research on clinical trials. Knowing her specific lung cancer mutations ahead of time allowed her to narrow down the search of available and eligible trials to those that matched her specific types of mutation. Julie mentions that in her case, a large list of trials were available which made it challenging. To narrow the list down further, she focused on trials by location in her area of the country, as well as eligibility criteria. Following completion of her research, Julie says she next shared her information with her oncologist. After discussing past experiences, possible side effects, and the potential for success or failure, together they reached a decision about which clinical trials to apply for.
Patient Video - What has been the biggest challenge for you with your lung cancer?
The most challenging thing for Katherine has been slowing down. She has always been an active person, she likes sports and she likes to work out. She likes golfing. She has four kids and she was working full time. It’s been a struggle mentally because a lot of her activity has come to a halt. Katherine says she has to remind herself to slow down.
Patient Video - What was the one thing you would have liked your doctor to explain better about your lung cancer?
Katherine’s experience was that her lung cancer diagnosis was devastating. There was a lot of information coming at her very quickly which was difficult to process. She wishes her first doctor had educated her more and given her more information. She is with a different doctor now and he gives her a lot of education and time to process information along the way.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for other patients on their journey with lung cancer?
Katherine wants other lung cancer patients to get a second or third opinion. She also wants other patients to take the time to understand what their treatment options are, and try to educate themselves. She also recommends staying physically active, and connecting to social supports because there is a lot of help available.
Patient Video - How did your friends and family react when you told them about your lung cancer?
Katherine’s friends and family were devastated and shocked as she was. They did not know what it meant, because no-one in her family has gone through this before. They have all been very supportive. They have helped her stay positive.
Patient Video - What do you feel has been your unique challenge or situation when it comes to lung cancer?
Despite being a non-smoker, Katherine was diagnosed with stage 4 lung cancer. She didn’t fit the criteria that people think goes along with lung cancer. A lot of people assume that lung cancer is caused by smoking; however there are many non-smokers who get lung cancer. She wants people to know that factors other than smoking can play a role in getting lung cancer.
Patient Video - What has been the biggest challenge for you with your lung cancer?
Mark’s experience with lung cancer is that every day is grueling and it can take a lot out of him. Some days he has energy, and some days he doesn’t. But he is determined to work with his doctors and stick to his treatment journey. Mark says he is hopeful for the future and tries to keep a positive outlook.
Patient Video - What was the one thing you would have liked your doctor to explain better about your lung cancer?
Mark wishes that his doctors would have been more kind in their delivery of the diagnosis to him. They just told him flat out that he had lung cancer, and he feels the information could have been more gently put to him. It was hard news for him to hear.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for other patients on their journey with lung cancer?
Mark’s advice for other lung cancer patients is that they have to sustain and work with their doctors to stick to their lung cancer treatment journey.
Patient Video - How did your friends and family react when you told them about your lung cancer?
Mark has been very private about his lung cancer diagnosis. He did not want to burden his family and friends with the news of his diagnosis. He wanted to go through it on his own and he still feels there is hope ahead for him.
Patient Video - What do you feel has been your unique challenge or situation when it comes to lung cancer?
Mark says he tries not to think about his lung cancer so much because he does not want it to overwhelm him. He tries not to dwell on it. His strategy is to keep himself busy with cooking, playing his musical instruments, and other various activities.
Patient Video - How was your lung cancer diagnosed and how did you find out about your clinical trial?
Mr. Satterfield describes his early lung cancer symptoms which were excessive coughing and inability to sleep. He went to see the doctor and underwent a chest x-ray. On receiving an x-ray, which revealed a spot on his right lung, his doctor told him he had lung cancer. Mr. Satterfield felt that his faith in God helped him deal with this news. He started chemotherapy in December 2013, but unfortunately experienced side effects of dehydration and was unable to keep food and fluids down for about 2 weeks. He was admitted to hospital until he was able to keep food and fluids down. On returning home he continued to receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Mr. Satterfield was later referred to the University of Minnesota to oncologist Dr. Manish Patel, who informed him about participating in a clinical trial.
Patient Video - What was your overall experience in the lung cancer clinical trial?
Mr. Satterfield has no regrets in joining the clinical trial. He is glad he made the decision to come to a Center of Excellence at the University of Minnesota. He was unafraid and just knew that he was going to look for another opinion. His wife, children, and pastor all gave him strength not to be afraid. Despite the potential for side effects, Mr. Satterfield’s message to others thinking about being in a clinical trial is not to be afraid and to not let fear set in.
Patient Video - What led you to have lung cancer screening?
Sharon talks about what led her to have a lung cancer screening test. She found out about the procedure from speaking with her doctor. While she did know of two people in her community who had undergone screening, it was not initially on the top of her mind as a tool that could aid in screening for potential lung cancer.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for your community about lung cancer screening?
Sharon shares advice for others in her community who may be interested in getting screened for lung cancer. She encourages others to talk with their doctors about lung cancer screening because it’s simple, painless, and can help save lives.
Patient Video - How did you find out you had KRAS-positive lung cancer?
Terri shares her lung cancer diagnosis journey and talks about her experiences with comprehensive biomarker testing that revealed she has the KRAS G12D lung cancer mutation.
Patient Video - How has your KRAS mutation affected the treatment options available to you?
Terri discusses her treatment journey for her KRAS G12D-positive lung cancer. Currently there are no targeted treatments approved for the KRAS G12D lung cancer mutation, but knowing her mutation is important because it provides information on what treatment options are available to her for immunotherapy, surgery, or radiation. She is hopeful about the new treatments that are being researched in clinical trials.
Patient Video - What has been the biggest challenge for you with your lung cancer?
Accepting the diagnosis was Tricia’s greatest initial challenge. Finding out at the young age of 26 was very difficult. In Tricia’s case, she was first diagnosed with a lung abscess and scheduled for a lobectomy. It was only after the surgery that the doctors told her she had lung cancer. Tricia also found it depressing and disheartening to learn about the statistics for lung cancer. The uncertainty of what her outcome may or may not be is very challenging to her.
Patient Video - What was the one thing you would have liked your doctor to explain better about your lung cancer?
Tricia remembers that everything happened so fast at the time of her diagnosis, and there was not a lot of time to absorb what was happening. She did not receive a lot of information at the time because the immediate response was to treat her lung cancer very aggressively and she trusted her doctor in doing so. She was diagnosed with non small cell (squamous cell) lung cancer and she had to do a lot of research on her own about her condition.
Patient Video - What advice do you have for other patients on their journey with lung cancer?
Tricia’s advice for other lung cancer patients is for them to focus on what’s best for them, and to take good care of themselves. They should be aware that this experience can be a roller coaster ride, and to expect lots of challenges. In her case, she is 11 years out from her first diagnosis, and she feels she has learned a lot. She recommends that other lung cancer patients do lots of self-care and try to keep enjoying life with family and friends.
Patient Video - How did your friends and family react when you told them about your lung cancer?
Tricia’s friends and family were sad, worried and fearful when they heard about her lung cancer diagnosis. She feels very fortunate that her friends and family have been so supportive of her. At her first diagnosis she was very private and didn’t share her diagnosis with a broader set of people. But after connecting with A Breath of Hope Lung Foundation and after her second diagnosis, Tricia has become more comfortable talking about it and has a wide support network. Now, Tricia shares her experiences in order to advocate for lung cancer awareness and more research funding.
Patient Video - What do you feel has been your unique challenge or situation when it comes to lung cancer?
Tricia’s early age of diagnosis (26 years) is something she feels has been very unique about her situation. All the research she had read about on lung cancer was for a much older demographic. The other patients were so much older than her and she did not feel she could relate to them, so she felt isolated in her diagnosis. Tricia has had lung cancer scanning every 4 months for 11 years. She’s still learning to cope with it and to navigate as best she can.
Animation - Screening for Lung Cancer
This animation provides an overview of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (called low-dose CT or LDCT). Screening is used to detect lung cancer early when it is most treatable. Watch to learn about the importance of lung cancer screening, who qualifies, and how low-dose CT works. Lung cancer screening is only available for people at high risk who meet certain screening eligibility criteria. Researchers have studied the safety of low-dose CT for more than 20 years. The results show that screening as recommended (for those eligible to be screened) is a low-risk and safe way to prevent many deaths from lung cancer.
Slide Show - Screening for Lung Cancer
This slide show provides an overview of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (called low-dose CT or LDCT). Screening is used to detect lung cancer early when it is most treatable. Learn about the importance of lung cancer screening, who qualifies, and how low-dose CT works. Lung cancer screening is only available for people at high risk who meet certain screening eligibility criteria. Researchers have studied the safety of low-dose CT for more than 20 years. The results show that screening as recommended (for those eligible to be screened) is a low-risk and safe way to prevent many deaths from lung cancer.
Expert Video - Why is early detection of lung cancer important?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Abbie Begnaud of the University of Minnesota discusses why early detection of lung cancer is so important. She explains that if lung cancer can be found early – even when there are no symptoms – it's more likely to be cured with treatment. When diagnosed late, lung cancer can be hard to treat successfully. Finding lung cancer early can lead to better outcomes.
Expert Video - What is lung cancer preventative screening?
Dr. Abbie Begnaud, an expert pulmonologist at the University of Minnesota, provides an overview of lung cancer preventative screening. She explains that lung cancer screening with a low-dose computerized tomography (LDCT) scan, looks for small "spots" on the lungs when a person has no symptoms. Dr. Begnaud further discusses that screening can help diagnose lung cancer early which can lead to a much better health outcome.
Expert Video - Who should have low-dose CT lung cancer screening and how often?
Dr. Abbie Begnaud, a lung cancer expert at the University of Minnesota, discusses who should have low-dose CT lung cancer screening and how often. She explains that a low-dose CT of the chest is not for everyone but rather reserved for people who have a high risk of lung cancer, in particular a history of cigarette smoking. She recommends that people who do get screened with a low-dose CT should do so annually to improve survival through early detection.
Expert Video - What should I expect during a low-dose CT lung cancer screening scan?
Lung cancer specialist Dr. Abbie Begnaud of the University of Minnesota provides an overview of what to expect during a low-dose CT lung cancer screening scan. She describes the test as being easy, quick, and non-invasive. The test will be led and supervised by the imaging center staff and the results will be made available to your doctor within a few days.
Expert Video - What are the benefits and risks of lung cancer screening?
Dr. Abbie Begnaud, a lung cancer specialist, discusses the benefits and risks of lung cancer screening. She explains the primary benefit of a low-dose CT scan is early detection of lung cancer when treatment may work better. Researchers have studied the safety of low-dose CT for more than 20 years. The results show that screening as recommended, for people who are eligible to be screened, is a low-risk and safe way to prevent many deaths from lung cancer. Dr. Begnaud also talks about the downsides of a low-dose CT scan which include radiation exposure, the potential for "incidental" findings, and false positives, which can lead to additional testing and anxiety. She emphasizes shared decision-making with your healthcare team, discussing the benefits, limitations, and potential risks of screening.
Expert Video - Are there alternatives to screening with low-dose CT scan?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Abbie Begnaud discusses whether there are any alternatives to lung cancer screening with low-dose CT. She explains that currently, the only approved screening method for lung cancer is the low-dose CT scan, which has undergone rigorous testing in multiple large study trials. Dr. Begnaud discusses other screening tests in development, including new kinds of blood tests, exhaled breath analysis tests, and the use of artificial intelligence as a tool for analyzing scans for features that the human eye may not detect. In the future, Dr. Begnaud believes that there will be more tools available to screen and diagnose lung cancer.
Expert Video - How and where can I get screened for lung cancer?
Dr. Abbie Begnaud, a pulmonologist specializing in lung cancer, provides an overview of how and where to get screened for lung cancer. She recommends checking if you meet eligibility criteria for insurance coverage since most private insurance plans, Medicare, and Medicaid programs will provide coverage for lung cancer screening tests. Dr. Begnaud explains that it is important to be screened at a center that has experienced specialists and the right equipment for low-dose CT. If you are not sure, contact your local clinic as they should be able to assist you with finding a location.
Expert Video - How does low-dose CT show whether I have lung cancer?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Abbie Begnaud explains how low-dose CT can detect lung cancer. She explains how your radiologist and healthcare team will evaluate the results of your low-dose CT scan and look for spots (called nodules) that are not supposed to be there. Nodules will be examined for various features, including their number, size, shape, and opacity, resulting in a score that can be used as a gauge to determine follow-up recommendations and next steps.
Animation - Early Detection and Screening for Lung Cancer in Black Americans
This animation provides an overview of the importance of early detection and screening for lung cancer in Black Americans. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer for Black American men and the second leading cause among Black American women. More Black American men die from lung cancer each year than men from any other group. For Black Americans at high risk for lung cancer, screening can save lives – and the best time to get screened is before you feel sick. Watch this animation to learn about the symptoms that could be caused by lung cancer, the risks and benefits of lung cancer screening, who is eligible for screening, what happens during a lung cancer screening test (low-dose CT scan), and questions to ask your doctor about this procedure.
Slide Show - Early Detection and Screening for Lung Cancer in Black Americans
This slide show provides an overview of the importance of early detection and screening for lung cancer in Black Americans. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer for Black American men and the second leading cause among Black American women. More Black American men die from lung cancer each year than men from any other group. For Black Americans at high risk for lung cancer, screening can save lives – and the best time to get screened is before you feel sick. You can learn about the symptoms that could be caused by lung cancer, the risks and benefits of lung cancer screening, who is eligible for screening, what happens during a lung cancer screening test (low-dose CT scan), and questions to ask your doctor about this procedure.
Expert Video - Why is screening for lung cancer important for Black Americans?
Thoracic surgeon Dr. Fatima Wilder discusses why early detection and screening for lung cancer is so important for Black Americans and discusses the impact of lung cancer on Black American communities. In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer for Black men and the second leading cause among Black women. More Black American men die from lung cancer each year than men from any other group. More Black women die of lung cancer than Asian, Pacific Islander, Hispanic, or Latina women. Black Americans are more likely to be diagnosed with lung cancer at a young age, and at a later stage, when lung cancer can be hard to treat successfully. Dr. Wilder explains that if lung cancer can be found early, even when there are no symptoms, it's more likely to be cured with treatment. The risk of lung cancer being higher in Black Americans can be decreased through screening and early detection.
Expert Video - Why are Black Americans less likely to be screened for lung cancer?
Dr. Fatima Wilder, a physician specializing in thoracic surgery, discusses some of the reasons why Black Americans are less likely to be screened for lung cancer. She talks about disparities and barriers that may be faced when attempting to get screened, such as less access to primary care physicians and medical appointments, and lack of insurance coverage. Some people may not know about screening for lung cancer. Because of racial discrimination and past abuses like the Tuskegee health study, there can be a sense of distrust among certain members of the Black community towards the medical system.
Expert Video - Who should have low-dose CT lung cancer screening and how often?
Dr. Fatima Wilder, a thoracic surgeon and lung cancer expert, discusses who should be screened for lung cancer using low-dose CT screening and how often. She explains that a low-dose CT scan is reserved for people who have a high risk for lung cancer. Those who are at high risk are eligible for yearly lung cancer screening if they are between 50 and 80 years old, currently smoke or have quit within the last 15 years, smoked a pack a day for 20 years or 2 packs a day for at least 10 years, and have no symptoms that could be caused by lung cancer.
Expert Video - What should I expect during a low-dose CT lung cancer screening scan?
Thoracic surgeon Dr. Fatima Wilder provides an overview of what to expect during a low-dose CT scan to screen for lung cancer. She describes the test as being easy, quick, and non-invasive. You don't need to fast, get injections, or do any other preparation for the test. You will need to remove any metal you're wearing, such as jewelry. If you're feeling sick, you'll need to reschedule the test for when you feel better.
Expert Video - What are the benefits and risks of lung cancer screening?
Dr. Fatima Wilder, a physician specializing in thoracic surgery, discusses the benefits and risks of lung cancer screening. She explains the benefit of a low-dose CT scan is finding lung cancer early so that it can be treated early and effectively. Dr. Wilder also talks about some possible risks, which include some radiation exposure and incidental findings. She emphasizes shared decision-making with your healthcare team about the benefits, limitations, and potential risks of screening.
Expert Video - What questions should I ask my doctor about screening for lung cancer?
Thoracic surgeon Dr. Fatima Wilder discusses the types of questions you may want to ask your doctor about lung cancer screening, including: Why should I get screened? Where can I get a low-dose CT scan? How long will it take to get the results? Will someone explain the results to me in a way that I can understand? What are the next steps for my screening test? Will I need more interventions? What happens if something is found?
Expert Video - How and where can I get screened for lung cancer?
Thoracic surgeon Dr. Fatima Wilder provides an overview of how and where to get screened for lung cancer. She recommends working with your primary care provider to determine if you meet the eligibility criteria and the benefits of having a low-dose CT scan. They will refer you to a screening center and will also work with your insurance company to ensure the low-dose CT scan is covered so that you are not left with unnecessary costs.
Expert Video - Is screening for lung cancer covered by insurance?
Dr. Fatima Wilder, a thoracic surgeon and lung cancer expert, explains that most lung cancer screening is covered by health insurance if you have a high risk of lung cancer and meet the criteria for lung cancer screening. If you don't meet the criteria, talk with your primary care physician to see if there are other symptoms, signs, or concerns that may still indicate that screening could be beneficial for you.
Expert Video - Where can I get help to quit smoking?
Dr. Fatima Wilder, a thoracic surgeon and lung cancer expert, discusses how smoking is a leading cause of lung cancer and talks about ways to get help to quit smoking. Dr. Wilder also discusses the importance of incorporating smoking cessation into lung cancer screening. If you've been trying to quit, or are thinking about quitting, talk with your doctor about proven steps that can help you quit.
Animation - Early Detection and Screening for Lung Cancer in Native Americans
This animation provides an overview of the importance of early detection and screening for lung cancer in Native Americans. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among Native Americans. For Native Americans at high risk for lung cancer, screening can save lives – and the best time to get screened is before you feel sick. Watch this animation to learn about the symptoms that could be caused by lung cancer, the risks and benefits of lung cancer screening, who is eligible for screening, what happens during a lung cancer screening test (low-dose CT scan), and questions to ask your doctor about this procedure.
Slide Show - Early Detection and Screening for Lung Cancer in Native Americans
This slide show provides an overview of the importance of early detection and screening for lung cancer in Native Americans. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among Native Americans. For Native Americans at high risk for lung cancer, screening can save lives – and the best time to get screened is before you feel sick. You can learn about the symptoms that could be caused by lung cancer, the risks and benefits of lung cancer screening, who is eligible for screening, what happens during a lung cancer screening test (low-dose CT scan), and questions to ask your doctor about this procedure.
Expert Video - Why is lung cancer screening important for Native Americans?
Pulmonologist and critical care medicine specialist Dr. Annie Rusk discusses why screening for lung cancer is so important for Native Americans and discusses the impact of lung cancer on Native American communities. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death for Native American people in the United States, and it is also the third most common cancer diagnosis in this community. Native Americans are more likely to be diagnosed with lung cancer at a later stage when lung cancer can be hard to treat successfully. Dr. Rusk explains that if lung cancer can be found early, even when there are no symptoms, it's more likely to be cured with treatment. Finding lung cancer early can lead to better outcomes.
Expert Video - Who should have low-dose CT lung cancer screening and how often?
Dr. Annie Rusk, a physician specializing in pulmonary and critical care medicine, discusses who should have low-dose CT lung cancer screening and how often. She explains that a low-dose CT of the chest is reserved for people who have a high risk of lung cancer, in particular, those with a history of cigarette smoking. She explains that people who get screened with a low-dose CT should do so annually to improve survival through early detection.
Expert Video - What should I expect during a low-dose CT scan to screen for lung cancer?
Pulmonologist and critical care specialist Dr. Annie Rusk of the Mayo Clinic Arizona provides an overview of what to expect during a low-dose CT scan to screen for lung cancer. She describes the test as being easy, quick, and non-invasive. The test results will be made available to your doctor within a few days. 
Expert Video - What are the benefits and risks of lung cancer screening?
Dr. Annie Rusk, a specialist in pulmonary and critical care medicine, discusses the benefits and risks of lung cancer screening. She explains the benefit of a low-dose CT scan is early diagnosis of lung cancer and the identification of nodules or other findings that may lead to lung cancer, which can be treated early and effectively. She emphasizes shared decision-making with your healthcare team and discusses the benefits, limitations, and potential risks of screening.
Expert Video - What questions should I ask my doctor about lung cancer screening?
Pulmonologist Dr. Annie Rusk of the Mayo Clinic Arizona reviews the importance of discussing lung cancer screening with your doctor and the types of questions you may want to ask, including: Why should I get screened when I feel well and don't feel sick? Where can I get the lung cancer screening test (low-dose CT scan)? How long will it take to get the results? Will someone explain the results to me in a way that I can understand? What are the next steps for my screening test? If you are a current smoker, ask your doctor about ways to quit smoking.
Expert Video - Is lung cancer screening covered by insurance?
Dr. Annie Rusk, a pulmonologist and lung cancer expert at the Mayo Clinic Arizona, explains that most lung cancer screening is covered by health insurance. If you are uninsured or underinsured, she recommends talking with your local healthcare provider about how you can qualify for lung cancer screening.
Animation - Diagnosis and Screening of Lung Cancer
This animation explains how most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed. Some patients are diagnosed early (before they feel symptoms) because their doctors notice something in a chest x-ray or another test that was done for other reasons. Doctors use several methods and tests for diagnosing lung cancer and this animation will help you to discuss these options with your doctor. This animation also reviews people who are at higher risk for lung cancer and whether they should be screened for lung cancer. Screening is very important to increase the chances of detecting lung cancer early. The earlier the diagnosis the better the outcomes.
Slide Show - Diagnosis and Screening of Lung Cancer
This slide show explains how most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed. Some patients are diagnosed early (before they feel symptoms) because their doctors notice something in a chest x-ray or another test that was done for other reasons. Doctors use several methods and tests for diagnosing lung cancer and this slide show will help you to discuss these options with your doctor. This slide show also reviews people who are at higher risk for lung cancer and whether they should be screened for lung cancer. Screening is very important to increase the chances of detecting lung cancer early. The earlier the diagnosis the better the outcomes.
Expert Video - How is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosed?
Diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer is “tissue based”. This means that typically if a patient has been given a CAT Scan or X-Ray which identifies an abnormality in the lungs, the next step is to do a biopsy which can done in a variety of ways. It can be done by the radiologist at the time of the CAT scan (or CT scan). A piece of the tissue is looked at by a pathologist under the microscope. Another way is using a “bronchoscopy” which involves a tube being placed through the nose or into the mouth and into the airway. The pulmonologist can use this tool to see the cancer and then take a sample of the tissue for biopsy. In some cases, surgeons can be involved in the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer. In these cases its usually when the cancer is located in places like the lymph nodes which are difficult for the pulmonologist or radiologist to reach.
Expert Video - How is small cell lung cancer (SCLC) diagnosed?
Small cell lung cancer is typically diagnosed by a pulmonologist. The reason is that the cancer is usually centrally located and easily accessed by the pulmonologist using a bronchoscope. A pulmonologist will use a bronchoscope, which is essentially a tube with a light and a camera on the end of it to try to see the cancer. The bronchoscope can be passed through the nose or mouth and be guided into the lung to try to see the cancer and then biopsy it (take a sample of the tissue). Sometimes this is not feasible and then an interventional radiologist needs to be involved in the diagnosis.
Expert Video - What is screening for lung cancer?
Screening for lung cancer means looking for lung cancer using a screening technique in individuals that do not currently have lung cancer, but who may be at risk for lung cancer. In the US, screening is approved for patients older than 55 years of age and also have smoked greater than 30 pack years of cigarettes in their lifetime. “Pack years” is defined by the number of packs smoked X(multiplied by) the number of years smoked. For this group, screening is associated with better outcomes. Other individuals might benefit from screening however this is an area still being studied. The technique used for screening involves the use of CAT scans (with Low Dose radiation). These have a much lower amount of radiation exposure than a typical diagnostic CAT scan (or CT scan).
Expert Video - If someone with lung cancer has very poor lung function, what should they be aware of?
It’s most important that patients discuss their lung function with their doctor. They need to consider what their lung function is both before surgery and what it might be like after surgery. The decision about surgery can be very much a personal decision. In certain patients, if their lung function is excellent then the standard of care might be surgery and they can discuss this with their physician.
Expert Video - What does it mean if a patient has “metastatic lung cancer”?
The words “metastatic lung cancer” can mean a lot of different things and it is an important topic to discuss with your doctor as it may relate to your situation. In the past patients with “metastatic lung cancer” were considered untreatable when it came to surgery. Today we have a more hopeful situation. For example, there is a new term that sounds very complex and it is called “Oligometastatic lung cancer”. In these patients surgery can be an option to consider.
Expert Video - What is “multi-focal lung cancer”?
Some patients might have what is called “multi-focal lung cancer”. They might have a genetic mutation, for example an EGFR mutation, and they might have 2 different types of lung cancers growing in their body. Decisions about surgery in these patients can be complex.
Expert Video - What kind of healthcare team is a lung cancer patient likely to see?
It’s important to think about a team approach if you have lung cancer. It’s important to realize that your family and friends are part of that team approach, as well as your healthcare professionals. In terms of your healthcare team, it’s important to have what’s called a "multidisciplinary" approach where different doctors and healthcare members bring different types of expertise to help you fight your lung cancer.
Expert Video - What does pulmonary lung function mean and how is it tested?
Pulmonary lung function testing is one of the essential ways that doctors use to decide if you are a candidate for lung cancer surgery. It’s a breathing test and someone on your healthcare team will coach you on how to do this test. Sometimes patients get nervous about this test. It’s important to do it well and to the best of your ability. Some doctors even suggest a second time for the testing to make very sure that it is as accurate as possible.
Expert Video - What is a lung biopsy?
Take a small needle and pass it through the CAT scan to watch the needle going in towards the center of the nodule. Once there the healthcare member can take a sample. Sometimes they apply suction to the needle or sometimes they will pass what’s called a “needle core”. The different types of biopsies can help your doctor test for genetic mutations in the tumor and help to guide the type of therapy or treatment. For example, it can show that a patient has small cell lung cancer, which is very rarely treated with surgery. You should discuss the different biopsy techniques with your doctor.
Animation - Staging of Lung Cancer
This animation explains how lung cancer staging is a system that doctors use to describe or classify the overall size and spread of the main tumor. Doctors need lung cancer staging information to help plan a patient’s treatment. Lung cancer is classified into several stages - the higher the stage the more advanced the spread of the disease and the more aggressive the treatment strategy. In Stage 0 the cancer is only in the top layers of the cells lining the lung’s air passages and this is the easiest stage to treat. In Stage IV the cancer has spread to the other lung, lymph nodes outside the lungs, and other parts of the body.
Slide Show - Staging of Lung Cancer
This slide show explains how lung cancer staging is a system that doctors use to describe or classify the overall size and spread of the main tumor. Doctors need lung cancer staging information to help plan a patient’s treatment. Lung cancer is classified into several stages - the higher the stage the more advanced the spread of the disease and the more aggressive the treatment strategy. In Stage 0 the cancer is only in the top layers of the cells lining the lung’s air passages and this is the easiest stage to treat. In Stage IV the cancer has spread to the other lung, lymph nodes outside the lungs, and other parts of the body.
Expert Video - What is staging for lung cancer and how is it determined?
The treatment of any type of lung cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. The stage is based on how far the cancer has spread - whether the lung cancer is local or has spread outside the lungs to the lymph nodes or to other parts of the body. For non-small cell lung cancer, doctors want to determine the size of the primary cancer and whether it has spread to the lymph nodes or spread to the middle part of the chest, or spread outside those areas. Doctors use different diagnostic tests to determine the cancer’s stage. These tests include CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans. If undergoing surgery, a procedure called a “mediastinoscopy” can provide additional information on the stage of the lung cancer. Knowing the lung cancer stage helps the doctor to decide what kind of treatment is best and can help predict a patient’s prognosis (outlook).
Expert Video - What is stage I, II, III or IV lung cancer?
The stage of a cancer describes the extent of the cancer. It is based on the size and location of the tumor, and whether it has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. A stage 1 lung cancer is located only in the lungs and has not spread to any of the lymph nodes. A stage 2 lung cancer is a bit more advanced, where the cancer has spread to the localized lymph nodes. A stage 3 cancer is one where the lymph nodes in the middle part of the chest are also involved (the area called the mediastinum). A stage 4 lung cancer is one that has spread outside the chest, either to the other lung, or to other parts of the body, such as the bone or brain or liver or adrenal glands.
Animation - Understanding Biomarker Testing in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
This animation provides an overview of comprehensive biomarker testing for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its critical importance for every lung cancer diagnosis. Biomarker testing shows specific mutations that drive NSCLC to grow and spread. It can also show changes in the level of a protein called PD-L1. Biomarker testing helps doctors learn about your unique type of lung cancer and how best to treat it. Watch to learn about common gene mutations EGFR, ALK, KRAS, ROS1, BRAF V600E, and others. Experts recommend that anyone diagnosed with NSCLC should have biomarker testing. If you did not receive it, talk to your doctor about biomarker testing now. This is particularly important for African Americans and other minorities who tend to have higher lung cancer rates, longer wait for care, and lower survival rates. Be sure to ask your doctor about comprehensive biomarker testing.
Slide Show - Understanding Biomarker Testing in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
This slide show provides an overview of comprehensive biomarker testing for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its critical importance for every lung cancer diagnosis. Biomarker testing shows specific mutations that drive NSCLC to grow and spread. It can also show changes in the level of a protein called PD-L1. Biomarker testing helps doctors learn about your unique type of lung cancer and how best to treat it. Watch to learn about common gene mutations EGFR, ALK, KRAS, ROS1, BRAF V600E, and others. Experts recommend that anyone diagnosed with NSCLC should have biomarker testing. If you did not receive it, talk to your doctor about biomarker testing now. This is particularly important for African Americans and other minorities who tend to have higher lung cancer rates, longer wait for care, and lower survival rates. Be sure to ask your doctor about comprehensive biomarker testing.
Expert Video - What is 'comprehensive biomarker testing' and why is it important in lung cancer?
Robert Winn, MD, of the Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center, explains what biomarkers are, how they were first discovered, and how they can predict cancer risk and help determine treatment. He describes the history of lung cancer treatment and how understanding biomarkers can help doctors prescribe the most effective lung cancer treatment.
Expert Video - How is biomarker testing carried out?
Robert Winn, MD, of the Massey Cancer Center at Virginia Commonwealth University, discusses different ways to take samples for lung cancer biomarker testing, including VATS (video assisted thoracoscopy), bronchoscopy, and blood, urine, or saliva testing. He also discusses the number of different biomarkers a laboratory may look for in the biological samples and shares questions patients should ask before and after biomarker testing, including about insurance coverage, when to expect results, and when to call with questions.
Expert Video - When should biomarker testing be done in NSCLC?
Cancer expert Dr. Robert Winn talks about the importance of discussing biomarker testing as soon as possible, even before getting a definitive diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients should also ask about removing additional tissue or repeating biomarker testing if samples are taken, in order to yield the most accurate results. Dr. Winn encourages patients to take advantage of precision medicine to receive lung cancer treatments tailored to their specific mutations.
Expert Video - Which biomarkers exist for NSCLC?
Robert Winn, MD, of Virginia Commonwealth University discusses EGFR, KRAS, and ALK, three of the main biomarkers for non-small-cell lung cancers, and the importance of testing for these to deliver precision medicine. He also encourages patients to ask which additional biomarkers will be included in the test panel.
Expert Video - What happens if my tumor tests positive for a biomarker? What happens if it doesn’t test positive?
Dr. Robert Winn, cancer expert from the Massey Cancer Center at Virginia Commonwealth University, discusses the benefits of knowing which biomarkers are present in non-small-cell lung cancer in order to choose a specific treatment. He also explains the promising options available to people whose tumors do not test positive for biomarkers, including immunotherapy and new chemotherapy drugs.
Expert Video - What if I have already had a biopsy and my tumor was not tested for biomarkers?
Robert Winn, MD, of Virginia Commonwealth University, explains that even without biomarker testing for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the standard of care can provide effective treatment. However, he advocates for talking with your doctor about biomarker testing before any biopsies or procedures are done to diagnose NSCLC.
Expert Video - What should newly diagnosed lung cancer patients do if biomarker testing is not offered to them?
Cancer expert Dr. Robert Winn explains the vital importance of patients with suspected non-small-cell lung cancer asking about biomarker testing if it is not offered. Patients have the right to seek a second opinion about their NSCLC diagnosis and request biomarker testing.
Expert Video - Why is biomarker testing so important for certain ethnic groups, such as African Americans?
Director of the Virginia Commonwealth University's Massey Cancer Center Dr. Robert Winn explains that biomarker testing is important for all people, but lung cancer is the #1 leading cause of cancer death for African Americans in the United States. African Americans may have EGFR, KRAS, and other biomarkers for non-small-cell lung cancer, but biomarker testing may also identify mutations that lead to lifesaving treatment through precision medicine.
Expert Video - How can we close the gaps to make sure all NSCLC patients get tested?
Robert Winn, MD, director of the Massey Cancer Center at Virginia Commonwealth University, discusses the disparity in care for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer between Black and White Americans and describes various ways to close this and other gaps, including through clinical trial participation, routine biomarker testing, patient education and involvement, and knowledge of the potential of precision medicine for lung cancer treatment.
Animation - Treatment and Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
This animation explains how most patients with NSCLC are treated more than 1 type of treatment. That can include with surgery, radiation therapy, or drug therapy. In various stages of lung cancer, there are also supportive treatments to ease pain and discomfort; prevent and treat side effects; help you deal with stress and anxiety; and if you have not already done so, to help you stop smoking. Palliative treatments also exist to ease symptoms and improve quality of life.
Slide Show - Treatment and Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
This slide show explains how most patients with NSCLC are treated more than 1 type of treatment. That can include with surgery, radiation therapy, or drug therapy. In various stages of lung cancer, there are also supportive treatments to ease pain and discomfort; prevent and treat side effects; help you deal with stress and anxiety; and if you have not already done so, to help you stop smoking. Palliative treatments also exist to ease symptoms and improve quality of life.
Animation - Treatment and Management of Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)
This animation explains how most patients with small cell lung cancer are treated. Most patients receive chemotherapy (or "chemo" for short) and radiation therapy. There are also supportive treatments to ease pain and discomfort; prevent and treat side effects; help you deal with stress and anxiety; and if you have not already done so, to help you stop smoking. Palliative treatments also exist to ease symptoms and improve quality of life.
Slide Show - Treatment and Management of Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)
This slide show explains how most patients with small cell lung cancer are treated. Most patients receive chemotherapy (or "chemo" for short) and radiation therapy. There are also supportive treatments to ease pain and discomfort; prevent and treat side effects; help you deal with stress and anxiety; and if you have not already done so, to help you stop smoking. Palliative treatments also exist to ease symptoms and improve quality of life.
Expert Video - What kind of surgery is used for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)?
Surgery for non-small cell lung cancer is quite varied. There is no “one size fits all” because it depends on multiple factors. First of all, it depends on the location of the cancer. Secondly, it depends on the extent of the cancer, for example, to what extent does it involve the lymph nodes and the middle of the chest. Thirdly, it depends on the “cardiopulmonary reserve” of the patient. That includes factors like the amount of normal lung that can be spared from the surgery to ensure that the patient has sufficient lung function after the surgery is completed. The different types of surgery explained in this video are wedge resection, lobectomy, and pneumonectomy.
Expert Video - What factors determine the extent of lung cancer surgery?
The extent of lung cancer surgery depends on multiple factors. First, it depends on the location of the cancer and if it can be removed with a simpler kind of surgery or if it requires a more complicated surgery. Second, it depends on the amount of normal lung that the patient would lose as part of the surgery and their existing lung function. If their lung function is already weak, then it’s possible that the amount of surgery a patient can tolerate will be much less and that will impact the choice of surgical procedure as well. Lung cancer patients may be seen by a lung specialist called a pulmonologist, who can evaluate what their lung capacity is by conducting some tests. Surgery can range from limited surgery called wedge resections (also called a segmentectomy), to bigger surgeries, where a lobe of the lung is removed (called a lobectomy) and in some cases an entire lung needs to be removed (called a pneumonectomy).
Expert Video - Is surgery an option for small cell lung cancer?
Surgery is typically not used in patients who have been diagnosed with small cell lung cancer. The reason is that small cell lung cancer tends to spread much quicker into the blood stream than non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is more often a systemic disease and as such the primary treatment is usually chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. There may be situations where surgery was used to remove a large mass in someone who was not yet diagnosed with lung cancer, however it’s rare.
Expert Video - What is chemotherapy? When is it needed?
Chemotherapy is a type of treatment for lung cancer that tries to eradicate the cancer cells. There are different types of chemotherapy drugs. They work by affecting the general process in which cells divide (or make copies of themselves during the normal cell growth cycle). Cancer cells tend to grow much faster than normal cells in the body, and this makes them more sensitive to chemotherapy than the other cells in the body. Chemotherapy is used for lung cancer in patients with advanced lung cancer (in cases which cannot be treated by surgery). It is also sometimes used after surgery in cases where there are risk factors of the cancer that increase the likelihood of it coming back again (“adjuvant” setting). Finally, chemotherapy can be used with someone who has locally advanced lung cancer and is given together with radiation to enhance the effect of the radiation. This can be done prior to another round of surgery.
Expert Video - What is radiation therapy? When is it needed?
Radiation therapy, unlike chemotherapy, is a focused type of treatment that is used in localized cancers. A radiation beam is directed at a specific area of the lung for example. It’s used as a local therapy when a surgeon cannot remove the cancer in the chest. It is also used in cases where there are no other treatment options, for example if the lung cancer has spread to the brain then chemotherapy has difficulty passing the blood-brain barrier, so radiation therapy will be used. Radiation therapy is also used if the lung cancer has spread to the bone.
Expert Video - What is immune therapy? When is it needed?
Immune therapy is very different to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Instead of targeting the cancer cell, immune therapy boosts the naturally present immune system in your body to fight the cancer. It’s rapidly becoming our “3rd” treatment approach for lung cancer patients and offers a lot of hope for the future.
Expert Video - What is genomic testing? And why is it needed?
Genomic testing for lung cancer is used to understand the unique characteristics (genomic alterations) of the individual patient’s cancer. Doctors look for genomic alterations that impact the growth and development of the person’s cancer, which helps to determine the best treatment options for the individual. The tests can take days or a few weeks to complete.
Expert Video - What is a clinical trial?
Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new ways to improve treatments and quality of life for people with diseases, like lung cancer. Clinical trials take place in various phases, each designed to answer important research questions that lead to the next phase. The earliest phase of a clinical trial is called a Phase 1 trial where the treatment is usually being tested in humans for the first time. Other phases of clinical trials are called Phase 2, Phase 3 and Phase 4.
Expert Video - Is a “Placebo” always used in a controlled clinical trial?
Not all clinical trials are “Placebo-Controlled Trials”. Most of the time placebo controlled trials are quite rare, because in lung cancer trials the patients almost always get the best standard of care available. It’s very rare that a cancer clinical trial patient would get “no active therapy” as a placebo. Patients need to discuss the details of each clinical trial very carefully with their healthcare provider to make sure they understand the potential benefits and risks involved.
Expert Video - When would a patient with lung cancer consider “Palliative Care”?
Understanding what “Palliative care” means is very important for lung cancer patients. Palliative care are those options available to lung cancer patients that help them get the best quality of life possible. Every person is unique and needs to consider their treatment options carefully. The goal of palliative care is to minimize suffering in a very respectful and meaningful way.
Expert Video - What are “lung sparing techniques”?
Lung sparing techniques are very important and are becoming more widespread for lung cancer surgery. Lung sparing techniques include a segmentectomy, a bisegmentectomy, and a trisegmentectomy. Instead of removing the entire lobe of a lung, the surgeon will remove just a segment of the lung.
Expert Video - What is an EGFR mutation for lung cancer?
An EGFR mutation means an “epidermal growth receptor factor” mutation. Some patients may have this mutation and it means that they might be a candidate for targeted therapy. Targeted therapy is a way to treat the individual cancer patient’s unique genetic identifiers.
Animation - Understanding Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer
This animation explains how immunotherapy works for lung cancer. Immunotherapy uses medicine to stimulate the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. The immunotherapy drugs that are most often used to treat lung cancer are called "checkpoint inhibitors." On the surface of cancer cells there are proteins that “put the brakes” on the immune system. They serve as “checkpoints” that stop the immune system from launching an all-out assault on cancer. Checkpoint inhibitors work by “taking off the brakes” and giving the immune system free rein to release special cells called T cells that attack the cancer. Watch to learn about checkpoint proteins called PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, considerations for combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy, as well as learn about possible side effects of immunotherapy for lung cancer.
Slide Show - Understanding Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer
This slide show explains how immunotherapy works for lung cancer. Immunotherapy uses medicine to stimulate the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. The immunotherapy drugs that are most often used to treat lung cancer are called "checkpoint inhibitors." On the surface of cancer cells there are proteins that “put the brakes” on the immune system. They serve as “checkpoints” that stop the immune system from launching an all-out assault on cancer. Checkpoint inhibitors work by “taking off the brakes” and giving the immune system free rein to release special cells called T cells that attack the cancer. Watch to learn about checkpoint proteins called PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, considerations for combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy, as well as learn about possible side effects of immunotherapy for lung cancer.
Animation - Immunotherapy Treatments for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
This animation provides an overview of several immunotherapy treatments that have been approved for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunotherapy is the use of medicines to stimulate the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. This animation also describes how your doctor will evaluate whether immunotherapy is right for you, possible treatment side effects, and clinical trials. It's important to discuss all treatment options with your doctor or cancer care team, so you can make the best decisions that are right for you. Side effects of immunotherapy are often treated with prednisone, a drug that suppresses your immune system. Your immunotherapy will be stopped until the side effects clear up.
Slide Show - Immunotherapy Treatments for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
This slide show provides an overview of several immunotherapy treatments that have been approved for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunotherapy is the use of medicines to stimulate the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. This slide show also describes how your doctor will evaluate whether immunotherapy is right for you, possible treatment side effects, and clinical trials. It's important to discuss all treatment options with your doctor or cancer care team, so you can make the best decisions that are right for you. Side effects of immunotherapy are often treated with prednisone, a drug that suppresses your immune system. Your immunotherapy will be stopped until the side effects clear up.
Animation - Immunotherapy Treatments for Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)
This animation provides an overview of several immunotherapy treatments that have been approved for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunotherapy is the use of medicines to stimulate the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. This animation also describes how your doctor will evaluate whether immunotherapy is right for you, possible treatment side effects, and clinical trials. It’s very important to report any side effects to your health care team promptly. Side effects of immunotherapy are often treated with drugs that suppress your immune system. Your immunotherapy will be stopped until the side effects clear up. Discuss all of your treatment options as with your health care team, so you can make decisions that are right for you. If there’s anything you don’t understand, ask to have it explained.
Slide Show - Immunotherapy Treatments for Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)
This slide show provides an overview of several immunotherapy treatments that have been approved for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunotherapy is the use of medicines to stimulate the body's immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. This slide show also describes how your doctor will evaluate whether immunotherapy is right for you, possible treatment side effects, and clinical trials. It’s very important to report any side effects to your health care team promptly. Side effects of immunotherapy are often treated with drugs that suppress your immune system. Your immunotherapy will be stopped until the side effects clear up. Discuss all of your treatment options as with your health care team, so you can make decisions that are right for you. If there’s anything you don’t understand, ask to have it explained.
Animation - Targeted Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
This animation provides an overview of targeted therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted therapy is a cancer treatment directed towards specific mutations that drive cancer to grow and spread. Watch to learn about targeted therapy for common gene mutations such as EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF. You may qualify for targeted therapy based on the results of biomarker testing. This testing allows doctors to prescribe treatment that is tailored to your individual cancer. Be sure to ask your doctor about biomarker testing and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy offers hope and can make an important difference in your health outcomes.
Slide Show - Targeted Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
This slide show provides an overview of targeted therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted therapy is a cancer treatment directed towards specific mutations that drive cancer to grow and spread. Watch to learn about targeted therapy for common gene mutations such as EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF. You may qualify for targeted therapy based on the results of biomarker testing. This testing allows doctors to prescribe treatment that is tailored to your individual cancer. Be sure to ask your doctor about biomarker testing and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy offers hope and can make an important difference in your health outcomes.
Expert Video - What is targeted therapy for lung cancer?
Cancer expert Dr. Robert Winn explains that targeted therapy for lung cancer is based on identifying specific mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer that indicate what drug the patient will best respond to. Biomarker testing provides the targets for specific, precision medicine therapies that are more likely than older, non-precision treatments to help patients survive and thrive.
Expert Video - What targeted therapies are used for people with the EGFR mutation?
Erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib are commonly used to treat EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer, according to Robert Winn, MD, director of the Massey Cancer Center at Virginia Commonwealth University. He also discusses second-line drugs, what happens if patients do not respond to targeted therapies, and how biomarker testing for EGFR and other driver mutations can lead to use of additional targeted therapies for lung cancer.
Expert Video - What targeted therapies are used for people with the ROS1 mutation?
Dr. Robert Winn, cancer expert, describes the potential of crizotinib as a targeted therapy for people with ROS1 mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer, and how the health care team can help reduce and relieve side effects of this and other targeted therapies.
Expert Video - What is the importance of combination therapies for BRAF?
Dr. Robert Winn, an expert on cancer mutations, explains the importance of combination therapies for BRAF mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer. BRAF mutations are targeted with combination, or two-drug, therapy. He explains how using more than one drug can be more effective at treating non-small-cell lung cancer and how this approach applies to other mutations as well.
Expert Video - What is the future of combination therapy for lung cancer?
Robert Winn, MD, describes using molecular targeted therapy plus immunotherapy to treat lung cancer. Dr. Winn also discusses how cancers may adapt to treatment by a single medicine, but combination therapy can be more effective.
Expert Video - Can biomarker testing help identify clinical trial opportunities for me?
Biomarker testing can allow patients to be matched with specific clinical trials through the US National Institutes of Health, says Dr. Robert Winn, an expert on cancer treatment from Virginia Commonwealth University. These precision medicine treatments are not yet widely available, but biomarker testing can help patients identify the trials that may be most helpful for their specific non-small-cell lung cancer.
Animation - Understanding Clinical Trials in Lung Cancer
This animation explains what clinical trials are, how they are conducted, and why they are important for patients with lung cancer. Lung cancer clinical trials are research studies in which people volunteer to help test new treatments, procedures, or ways to diagnose or screen for lung cancer. Clinical trials for lung cancer are needed to find new lung cancer treatments, safer treatments, and more. This animation also provides an overview of study design, eligibility criteria, informed consent, safeguards, the phases of clinical trials, and the potential benefits and risks of participation. Be sure to ask your doctor about joining a clinical trial for your lung cancer. You can ask anytime before or during treatment.
Slide Show - Understanding Clinical Trials in Lung Cancer
This slide show explains what clinical trials are, how they are conducted, and why they are important for patients with lung cancer. Lung cancer clinical trials are research studies in which people volunteer to help test new treatments, procedures, or ways to diagnose or screen for lung cancer. Clinical trials for lung cancer are needed to find new lung cancer treatments, safer treatments, and more. This slide show also provides an overview of study design, eligibility criteria, informed consent, safeguards, the phases of clinical trials, and the potential benefits and risks of participation. Be sure to ask your doctor about joining a clinical trial for your lung cancer. You can ask anytime before or during treatment.
Expert Video - What is a clinical trial for lung cancer?
Dr. Manish Patel, Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota Medical School, explains clinical trials for lung cancer and other diseases. He explains how safeguards are used in lung cancer clinical trials to maintain clinical trial volunteers' safety and privacy while developing new knowledge about lung cancer treatment, screening for lung cancer, and lung cancer diagnosis.
Expert Video - Why are clinical trials needed for lung cancer?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Manish Patel of the University of Minnesota describes how clinical trials for lung cancer are needed to find new lung cancer treatments, safer treatments, and more. He describes how lung cancer clinical trials help develop more effective treatments so doctors can find the best lung cancer treatment for each patient and improve on existing treatments for lung cancer.
Expert Video - What are the different types and phases of lung cancer clinical trials?
Manish Patel, DO, Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota, explains interventional lung cancer clinical trials, which test new lung cancer treatments ("interventions"). He reviews phase 1 through 4 of clinical trials for lung cancer, from drug safety and effectiveness, to comparing a trial lung cancer treatment versus the current lung cancer standard of care. Dr. Patel also explains what happens after a new treatment developed in a lung cancer clinical trial is FDA approved.
Expert Video - What is a clinical trial drug treatment protocol?
Cancer specialist Dr. Manish Patel of the University of Minnesota explains what a clinical trial treatment protocol for lung cancer is and how researchers use it to regulate the lung cancer treatment trial, including following the trial protocol for the new lung cancer drug, dose, side effects, and more.
Expert Video - Who can participate in a lung cancer clinical trial?
Dr. Manish Patel describes who can take part in lung cancer clinical trials. Lung cancer trial volunteers may include people who have completed lung cancer treatment, received standard lung cancer treatments without success, or had some treatments for lung cancer, but not others. Dr. Patel explains what eligibility criteria are and how they relate to the protocol for a lung cancer clinical trial.
Expert Video - How long will a lung cancer clinical trial typically last?
Cancer specialist Manish Patel, DO, explains how long clinical trials for lung cancer may last. A lung cancer trial may end for various reasons, including not working for a specific person, problems with safety, or more effective lung cancer treatments being available. Some lung cancer clinical trials last a set amount of time. Dr. Patel discusses what clinical trial monitors, or lung cancer "study monitors," do and how researchers keep lung cancer trials safe and effective.
Expert Video - How are lung cancer treatments approved, based on clinical trial outcomes?
Manish Patel, DO, Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota, discusses how lung cancer clinical trial data are analyzed and how the FDA approves treatments for lung cancer. Dr. Patel also explains how the results of early lung cancer studies may lead to approval. He also explains the importance of reviewing lung cancer clinical trials to make sure the trial treatment is better than the standard of care for lung cancer and is safe.
Expert Video - How do lung cancer patients find a clinical trial that is a good fit for them?
Dr. Manish Patel, lung cancer specialist at the University of Minnesota, discusses asking your doctor about clinical trials for lung cancer. New lung cancer clinical trial treatments may be helpful. Dr. Patel talks about the relationship with your oncologist, the value of a second opinion on lung cancer, and the timing of enrolling in a lung cancer clinical trial.
Expert Video - Will I be randomized to receive one treatment versus another in a clinical trial?
Manish Patel, DO, of the University of Minnesota, describes ethical clinical trial safeguards for lung cancer clinical trials. Dr. Patel explains how effective lung cancer treatment is provided to all clinical trial volunteers.
Expert Video - Why is it important to have diversity in lung cancer clinical trials?
Diversity in lung cancer clinical trials is explained by Manish Patel, DO, Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota. Diversity in testing lung cancer treatments helps treatments for lung cancer be relevant to diverse racial, ethnic, social, and economic groups.
Animation - Lung Cancer Clinical Trials and the US Black Community
This animation provides an overview of the importance of lung cancer clinical trials in the Black American community. For Black men in the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. It is the second for Black women. Researchers are working hard to develop new ways to screen for, diagnose, and treat lung cancer for everyone. However, they need more Black people to join lung cancer clinical trials in order to truly represent Black people and develop treatments that work well for their genetic makeup. Watch this animation to learn about the importance of Black representation in lung cancer clinical trials, questions to ask about trial participation, the potential benefits and risks of participation, and how lung cancer clinical trials can help the Black community's health now and for future generations.
Slide Show - Lung Cancer Clinical Trials and the US Black Community
This slide show provides an overview of the importance of lung cancer clinical trials in the Black American community. For Black men in the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. It is the second for Black women. Researchers are working hard to develop new ways to screen for, diagnose, and treat lung cancer for everyone. However, they need more Black people to join lung cancer clinical trials in order to truly represent Black people and develop treatments that work well for their genetic makeup. View this slide show to learn about the importance of Black representation in lung cancer clinical trials, questions to ask about trial participation, the potential benefits and risks of participation, and how lung cancer clinical trials can help the Black community's health now and for future generations.
Expert Video - How prevalent is lung cancer among Black Americans? Why is it so prevalent?
Janine Harewood, MD, a lung cancer specialist practicing in Fort Myers, Florida, discusses the prevalence of lung cancer among Black Americans and lung cancer death in Black people. She also discusses racial disparities in lung cancer and how cigarette smoking and radiation exposure affect Black people and lung cancer.
Expert Video - Why is lung cancer diagnosed at a later stage among Black Americans compared to other Americans?
Dr. Janine Harewood, a medical oncologist based in Fort Myers, Florida, discusses how lung cancer can be a "silent disease" in Black Americans and why Black people are often diagnosed later with lung cancer. She discusses Black-White disparities in lung cancer screening, health insurance and Black Americans, and other social and economic factors in lung cancer among Black people.
Expert Video - What are the potential benefits of clinical trials for Black American lung cancer patients? What about risks?
Black representation in clinical trials benefits all Black Americans, says Dr. Janine Harewood, a medical oncologist in Fort Myers, Florida. Clinical trial benefits for Black people include frequent lung cancer checkups, the chance to make a difference to Black Americans with lung cancer, and more. Lung cancer trial placebos are no longer a risk for Black Americans. Dr. Harewood recommends asking about all lung cancer treatment options, including clinical trials for lung cancer in Black Americans.
Expert Video - Why are Black American lung cancer patients less likely to participate in clinical trials?
Janine Harewood, MD, discusses Black Americans' medical distrust as a barrier to lung cancer clinical trial participation. Many Black Americans are less likely to participate in clinical trials for lung cancer due to social and economic factors that affect Black healthcare, such as low access and a lack of lung cancer treatment options and low Black American awareness of lung cancer clinical trials.
Expert Video - What is health equity and why is it important in lung cancer care?
Cancer specialist Janine Harewood, MD, from Fort Myers, Florida, describes factors affecting health equity in lung cancer care, such as insurance, access to screening tests for lung cancer, transportation, and the ability to get to treatment for lung cancer care. Black Americans may be more affected by these barriers to lung cancer care than other Americans.
Expert Video - Why is it important from a scientific perspective to have more Black Americans in clinical trials?
Cancer specialist Janine Harewood, MD, explains that Black Americans are inadequately represented in lung cancer clinical trials and other cancer clinical trials. Black Americans' treatment outcomes, side effects, and risk may be different from Whites or other groups. Black people are needed to help doctors develop the best therapies for Black Americans' genetic makeup.
Expert Video - Why do current screening guidelines miss a significant portion of Black Americans at risk of lung cancer?
Dr. Janine Harewood, a lung cancer specialist from Fort Myers, Florida, explains why current lung cancer screening guidelines do not work well for Black Americans. She discusses smoke exposure and lung cancer in Black Americans, Black people and lung cancer screening, and how healthcare disparities affect Blacks.
Animation - Lung Cancer Clinical Trials and Native Americans

This animation provides an overview of the importance of lung cancer clinical trials in the Native American community. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among Native Americans, including those who identify as American Indian, Alaska Native, Pacific Islander, and Indigenous communities. Researchers are working hard on new ways to screen for, diagnose, and treat lung cancer for everyone. However, they need more Native people to join lung cancer clinical trials in order to truly represent Native people and develop treatments that work well for their genetic makeup. Watch this animation to learn about the importance of Native American representation in clinical trials, disparities affecting Native Americans with lung cancer, questions to ask about trial participation, and the potential benefits and risks of participation. Traditional healers have a strong role to play as well and can work with hospitals and other treatment providers. To learn more about clinical trials and how to participate in one, please talk to your doctor.

Slide Show - Lung Cancer Clinical Trials and Native Americans
This slide show provides an overview of the importance of lung cancer clinical trials in the Native American community. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among Native Americans, including those who identify as American Indian, Alaska Native, Pacific Islander, and Indigenous communities. Researchers are working hard on new ways to screen for, diagnose, and treat lung cancer for everyone. However, they need more Native people to join lung cancer clinical trials in order to truly represent Native people and develop treatments that work well for their genetic makeup. View this slide show to learn about the importance of Native American representation in clinical trials, disparities affecting Native Americans with lung cancer, questions to ask about trial participation, and the potential benefits and risks of participation. Traditional healers have a strong role to play as well and can work with hospitals and other treatment providers. To learn more about clinical trials and how to participate in one, please talk to your doctor.
Expert Video - How common is lung cancer in Native American communities?
Learn about lung cancer in Native American communities – a common cause of death from cancer – and the connection to commercial tobacco use (smoking) in Native communities. Lacey Running Hawk, MD, a family physician, discusses later lung cancer diagnosis, lung cancer screening for Native people, and barriers to lung cancer screening in Native communities.
Expert Video - Why are Native Americans underrepresented in clinical trials?
Dr. Lacey Running Hawk, a family physician from the Standing Rock Lakota people, discusses why Native Americans are not well-represented in lung cancer clinical trials. She describes Native people used as medical test subjects, reform of clinical trials, informed consent and access for Native people, and tailoring lung cancer treatments to the Native community.
Expert Video - Why is it important for Native Americans to participate in greater numbers in lung cancer clinical trials?
Lacey Running Hawk, MD, a family physician from the Lakota people at Standing Rock, discusses the importance of Native American representation in research, especially in lung cancer clinical trials. She discusses how trials of lung cancer treatments, screening, and diagnosis in Native people can help the Native community's health now and for future generations.
Animation - Understanding NSCLC Treatment Options When You Have an EGFR Mutation
This animation provides an overview of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and different treatment options. The good news is that specific treatments can target EGFR mutations. If you have an EGFR mutation, you may be a candidate for targeted therapy, and there are many treatments that target EGFR. Watch to learn about tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), monoclonal antibody drugs, managing side effects, the importance of repeat biomarker testing, clinical trials, and more.
Slide Show - Understanding NSCLC Treatment When You Have an EGFR Mutation
This slide show provides an overview of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and different treatment options. The good news is that specific treatments can target EGFR mutations. If you have an EGFR mutation, you may be a candidate for targeted therapy, and there are many treatments that target EGFR. Click through to learn about tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), monoclonal antibody drugs, managing side effects, the importance of repeat biomarker testing, clinical trials, and more.
Expert Video - What is a gene mutation and how does it relate to lung cancer?
Medical oncologist Dr. Naomi Fujioka of the University of Minnesota discusses gene mutations and their importance in lung cancer. She explains that understanding the genetic mutations that cause lung cancer is very important because it helps determine how best to treat lung cancer.
Expert Video - How do doctors test for genetic mutations in lung cancer and why is it important?
Medical oncologist Dr. Joseph Leach of Allina Health Cancer Institute provides an overview of how doctors test for genetic mutations in lung cancer by testing a sample of tumor tissue or blood. Knowing whether you have a particular mutation helps your doctor determine which treatment might work best for your lung cancer. More and more, there are specific treatments for specific mutations.
Expert Video - What is an EGFR mutation in lung cancer?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Naomi Fujioka of the University of Minnesota provides an introduction to EGFR mutations in lung cancer. EGFR mutations are one of the most common mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). She also talks about different types of EGFR mutations, including EGFR exon 19 and EGFR exon 21.
Expert Video - How do doctors treat lung cancer with EGFR mutations?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Joseph Leach provides an overview of how lung cancers with EGFR mutations are treated. The good news is that specific treatments can target EGFR mutations. Dr. Leach talks about targeted therapies including osimertinib (for exon 19 and exon 21 mutations), amivantamab (for an exon 20 insertion mutation), and others. He also discusses chemotherapy. Cancer cells with EGFR mutations can become resistant to treatment, so it is important to repeat biomarker testing if treatment stops working at any time. A different drug can make treatment more effective again.
Animation - Understanding NSCLC Treatment Options When You Have a KRAS Mutation
This animation provides an overview of KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and different treatment options. The first treatment for NSCLC with a KRAS mutation may include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The exact treatment depends on the stage of cancer, your general health, and other factors. Watch to learn about biomarker testing, targeted therapy that targets the KRAS G12C mutation, side effects of KRAS inhibitors, clinical trials, and more.
Slide Show - Understanding NSCLC Treatment Options When You Have a KRAS Mutation
This slide show provides an overview of KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and different treatment options. The first treatment for NSCLC with a KRAS mutation may include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The exact treatment depends on the stage of cancer, your general health, and other factors. Click through to learn about biomarker testing, targeted therapy that targets the KRAS G12C mutation, side effects of KRAS inhibitors, clinical trials, and more.
Expert Video - What is a KRAS mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?
Medical oncologist and lung cancer expert Dr. Joseph Leach shares an overview of KRAS mutations in lung cancer. Nearly one-third of people with non-small cell lung cancer have a KRAS mutation. He also talks about different types of KRAS mutations, including KRAS G12C which is the most common type and has specific treatments available to target it.
Expert Video - How do doctors treat lung cancer with KRAS mutations?
Medical oncologist and lung cancer expert Dr. Naomi Fujioka provides an overview of how lung cancers with KRAS mutations are treated. She discusses the use of KRAS inhibitors sotorasib and adagrasib that target the KRAS G12C mutation. She also discusses ongoing clinical trials researching how to combine KRAS inhibitors with other treatments, using KRAS inhibitors earlier in lung cancer treatment, and research on therapies targeting KRAS G12D.
Animation - Understanding NSCLC Treatment for Less Common Mutations: ALK, BRAF, ROS1, HER2, MET
This animation provides an overview of treatments for less common mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): ALK, BRAF, ROS1, HER2, and MET. The good news is that specific treatments can target these mutations. Watch to learn about different targeted therapy treatment options, common side effects, the importance of clinical trials, and more.
Slide Show - Understanding NSCLC Treatment for Less Common Mutations: ALK, BRAF, ROS1, HER2, MET
This slide show provides an overview of treatments for less common mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): ALK, BRAF, ROS1, HER2, and MET. The good news is that specific treatments can target these mutations. Click through to learn about different targeted therapy treatment options, common side effects, the importance of clinical trials, and more.
Expert Video - What is an ALK rearrangement in lung cancer?
Medical oncologist Dr. Naomi Fujioka of the University of Minnesota discusses ALK rearrangements which are a type of gene mutation that can occur in non-small cell lung cancer. Knowing whether your lung cancer is ALK-positive can help your doctor determine which treatments will work best for you.
Expert Video - How do doctors treat ALK-rearranged lung cancer?
Medical oncologist Dr. Joseph Leach provides an overview of how doctors treat ALK-rearranged lung cancer. He discusses targeted therapies for ALK mutations including alectinib, brigatinib, and lorlatinib, which are effective in controlling cancer. He explains that cancer cells can become resistant to targeted therapies, so it is important to repeat biomarker testing if treatment stops working at any time and to also consider participating in clinical trials.
Expert Video - What is a BRAF mutation in lung cancer?
Medical oncologist and lung cancer expert Dr. Joseph Leach shares an overview of BRAF mutations in lung cancer. He also talks about the two versions of the BRAF mutation, V600E and non-V600E. Knowing whether you have a particular mutation helps your doctor figure out which treatment might work best for your lung cancer.
Expert Video - How do doctors treat lung cancer with BRAF mutations?
Medical oncologist Dr. Naomi Fujioka shares an overview of how doctors treat BRAF-mutated lung cancer. She discusses targeted therapies for V600E mutated lung cancers, including the combination of trametinib and dabrafenib, and the combination of binimetinib and encorafenib. Immunotherapy can also be a good choice for people with BRAF non-V600E mutations. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment options for your specific lung cancer and consider participating in clinical trials.
Expert Video - What is a ROS1 mutation in lung cancer?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Naomi Fujioka of the University of Minnesota provides an introduction to ROS1 mutations in lung cancer. It affects about 1 or 2 percent of people with non-small cell lung cancer. Though rare, it is essential to test for it because there are specific treatments available to target it.
Expert Video - How do doctors treat lung cancer with ROS1 mutations?
Medical oncologist Dr. Joseph Leach of Allina Health Cancer Institute provides an overview of how doctors treat lung cancer with ROS1 mutations. He discusses targeted therapies including crizotinib, entrectinib, repotrectinib, lorlatinib, and other drugs. He also discusses clinical trials for ROS1-mutated lung cancer.
Expert Video - What is a HER2 mutation in lung cancer?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Joseph Leach provides an overview of HER2 mutations in lung cancer. It affects about 2 percent of people with non-small cell lung cancer.  Though rare, it is essential to test for it because there are specific treatments available to target HER2-mutated lung cancer.
Expert Video - How do doctors treat lung cancer with HER2 mutations?
Medical oncologist Dr. Naomi Fujioka of the University of Minnesota provides an overview of how doctors treat HER2-mutated lung cancer. She discusses trastuzumab deruxtecan, which is an antibody-drug conjugate, and discusses some of the side effects of treatment. She also talks about clinical trials to develop new treatments for HER2-mutated lung cancer.
Expert Video - What is a MET mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Naomi Fujioka of the University of Minnesota provides an introduction to MET mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which affects about 1 to 3 percent of people with lung cancer. She also talks about different types of MET mutations, including MET exon 14 skipping, amplifications, and others.
Expert Video - How do doctors treat lung cancer with MET mutations?
Medical oncologist Dr. Joseph Leach shares an overview of how doctors treat lung cancers with MET mutations. He discusses targeted therapies capmatinib and tepotinib used to treat the MET exon 14 skipping mutation. Cancer can become resistant to targeted therapy treatments, so it is important to talk with your doctor about all your treatment options including participating in clinical trials.
Animation - Understanding Immunotherapy for NSCLC with PD-1 and PD-L1 Biomarkers
This animation provides an overview of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PD-1 and PD-L1 biomarkers. The option of immunotherapy is one more reason why everyone diagnosed with NSCLC should have biomarker testing. Watch to learn about PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 checkpoint proteins, and the different immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs that act on PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. You can also learn about finding a clinical trial if you have PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4.
Slide Show - Understanding Immunotherapy for NSCLC with PD-1 and PD-L1 Biomarkers
This slide show provides an overview of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PD-1 and PD-L1 biomarkers. The option of immunotherapy is one more reason why everyone diagnosed with NSCLC should have biomarker testing. Click through to learn about PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 checkpoint proteins, and the different immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs that act on PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. You can also learn about finding a clinical trial if you have PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4.
Expert Video - What is immunotherapy and how does it work for lung cancer?
Medical oncologists and lung cancer experts Dr. Joseph Leach and Dr. Naomi Fujioka provide an overview of immunotherapy and how it works for treating lung cancer. They also talk about immune checkpoints PD-L1 and CTLA-4. Currently, doctors test for the presence of PD-L1 in all lung cancers and this information is very important for treatment decisions.
Expert Video - What types of immunotherapy are used to treat lung cancer?
Medical oncologist Dr. Naomi Fujioka of the University of Minnesota discusses immunotherapy treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunotherapies are used at different stages of NSCLC. They may be part of your first treatment, used later, or used for advanced cancer that has spread. She talks about a class of drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors that target either PD-L1 or PD-1. You may have an immunotherapy drug alone, in combination with chemotherapy, or combined with different immunotherapies such as CTLA-4 inhibitors.
Expert Video - What side effects can be associated with immunotherapy for lung cancer?
Lung cancer expert Dr. Joseph Leach of Allina Health Cancer Institute shares an overview of the side effects that may be associated with immunotherapy for lung cancer. He explains that some people experience very few side effects, while others have more serious complications and discusses some examples. It is important to let your doctor know right away about any side effects you experience. Your doctor can help you get them under control quickly.